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Jendral Karna [General Karna] (2004)

Dalang: Slamet Gundono

How to cite: Slamet Gundono ([2004] 2016), Jendral Karna [General Karna], translation and notes by Miguel Escobar Varela, Indraswari Kusumaningtyas and Yosephin Novi Marginingrum. Singapore: Contemporary Wayang Archive. Retrieved from http://cwa-web.org/en/JendralKarna.


Kunti has a child out of wedlock, named Karna. Her family, recast as a present-day political family, tries to get rid of the baby, but he is protected by a servant and ends up growing up to become a warrior for the Korawa faction - the enemies of Kunti's sons, the Pandawa. Kunti eventually reveals this story to Karna, and asks him to only fight Arjuna in the battle, since their fighting skills are comparable.

Story: Contemporary Situation, Mahabharata

Music: Gamelan, Distinctive Fusion

Space: Modified Space, Gedebog

Performers: Actors, Dalang as Actor

Puppets: Wayang Kulit Puppets, Unconventional Wayang

Language: Javanese

Recording details

Notes: This recording was part of the TV series Jagad Wayang [The Wayang World].

Produced by: Workshop Production Network

Recording place: Studio-19, Surakarta

Addional credits

Music director: Slamet Gundono, Sri Widodo

Creative team: Bobby Sandy, George Kamarullah, Mochammad Rivai

Camera: Iwan Onone, Kris Nyar, Irwano

Editor: Kris Ngar, Esha Kardus

Projection Image: Sartono Indy

Lighting: Tutut, Nur Ungil Hidayat

Sound: Iwan Onone, Sartono Indiarto

Wardrobe: Heru Boim, Riru Endah

Makeup: Gones Luh Indriyani, Yani Nindiana

Properties: Badrum, Dedek Ferdiansyah

Still photographer: Joko Suryono

Unit assistant: A Yusdi Nugroho, Tarno Bento, Lalang Wijanarko, Manggih Raharjo

Catering: Harmony Catering

View the metadata record for this resource.

Translation and notes by Miguel Escobar Varela (MEV), Indraswari Kusumaningtyas (IK) and Yosephin Novi Marginingrum (YNM).

1. This performance uses a combination of Banyumasan and Jogja-Solo Javanese dialects YNM.

2. The words kunyuk [monkey] and the English word man are used in order to make the atmosphere of the performance more informal YNM.

3. Simak is a variant of the word mbok [mother] YNM.

4. Galian singset is the name of a traditional medicinal drink made from spices, roots, and leaves. People drink it as a slimming formula YNM.

5. Inul Daratisa is a famous Indonesian dangdut star. Her dancing style is considered too sensual and provocative by some people, such as the founder of dangdut, Rhoma Irama, who has attacked Inul on different occasions MEV.

6. The word si denotes familiarity in an almost condescending tone MEV.

7. Anjlug is a humorous comic way of indicating a falling object YNM.

8. Munyuk [monkey] is often used as an insult MEV.

9. The sound jlug and jlog are onomatopoeic, used to indicate falling objects YNM.

10. Bluk is an onomatopoeic sound, used to indicate a falling object YNM.

11. Wéladalah! is an expression of surprise or anger YNM.

12. Iyyaaka na' budu wa iyyaaka nasta'iin [we pray for You and we ask for Your forgiveness] is a verse in the Quran IK.

13. Mbok slonong is something done quickly, without asking for permission beforehand YNM.

14. Becak is the Indonesian name for a rickshaw MEV.

15. In Indonesia, addresses are often indicated in relation to an RT or Rukun Tetangga [neighborhood] code MEV.

16. Dhadhung is a rope made from bamboo. It is often used to tie up farm animals YNM.

17. Diothot-othot is to force something out by pulling it YNM.

18. Dr Bauke is perhaps a reference to Dr Boyke, a well-known Indonesian sexologist. This observation is supported by the fact that later in the performance, the dalang mistakenly says Boyke MEV.

19. A reference to Suharto, the second president of Indonesia MEV.

20. Cendana is the place of residence of the Suharto family a site of frequent corruption scandals MEV.

21. Těngklèng is a typical mutton soup MEV.

22. Kalitan is the name of an area with a famous mosque, where Suharto had his family home IK.

23. Kalitan is also an area close to Wates, in Central Java. Silir was an area in Solo famous for prostitution. It was closed down in 2007 IK.

24. Pandu, of course, is Kunti's future husband MEV.

25. KPU stands for Komisi Pemilihan Umum, the General Election Commission of Indonesia MEV.

26. Perhaps he means Marilyn Monroe MEV.

27. Hapsara and Hapsari are semi-divine creatures MEV.

28. The pěsindhèn are the female singers. Dalang often make jokes about them during wayang performances MEV.

29. The peanut sellers, always part of wayang show are often the butt of jokes by the dalangs MEV.

30. Pakdhé refers to a man older than one's father IK.

31. The dalang says wědhus [goat] as an expression of disgust at the fact that the description of the "cow<" alluded by the cowgirl fits the description of the dalang YNM.

32. The cowgirl pretends not to understand the dalang's expression of disgust, taking wědhus [goat] in a literal sense YNM.

33. Susu means both milk and breasts in Javanese and Indonesian MEV.

34. Throughout this fragment, the joke is that the same word could mean either milk or breasts MEV.

35. SD stands for sekolah dasar [elementary school], TK stands for taman kanak-kanak [kindergarten] YNM.

36. A tukang loak is a second hand salesman YNM.

37. Word play, kagol [disappointed] sounds like cowgirl MEV.

38. Kamplĕngi [to hit someone or something] is aimed at the cowgirl. The dalang wants to punish her for appearing too dominant in the conversation YNM.

39. The dalang offers the wayang puppet to the cowgirl because she won't stop speaking, even when threatened YNM.

40. Lutung is a black monkey YNM.

41. Word play, lintang [stars] sounds like lutung [monkeys] MEV.

42. Cébol nggayuh lintang [a midget reaching for the stars] is a popular Javanese saying. It refers to an unattainable dream. YNM.

43. Since the New Order, the Indonesian government has organized nation-wide wayang seminars in order to determine which messages should be conveyed by the dalang in the performances (see Groenendael, The Dalang Behind the Wayang) MEV.

44. The words you is becoming increasingly common as a slang term in Indonesian MEV. Kurang gaul describes someone who does not socialize enough and is not up-to-date IK.

45. Suluk [high poetry] is a kind of singing that is used in order to set the emotional tone of a particular scene MEV.

46. Mandraka is another name for Mandura MEV.

47. Probably a reference to Paul Masson brandy MEV.

48. Blung is an onomatopoeic sound that indicates a falling object YNM.

49. Slěp is an onomatopoeic sound that indicates a falling object YNM.

50. Siong cigarettes are specialty cigarettes which contain aromatic plants, producing a unique aroma YNM.

51. Klĕyang kabur hamung kĕgawa angin [to fly with the wind] YNM.

52. Gĕmblung [crazy] YNM.

53. The site of the Bharatayuda War MEV.

54. Werkudara and Bima are two names for the same character MEV.

55. Maghrib is one of the daily Muslim prayers MEV.

56. It is common for people to go to Jakarta in search of better life opportunities MEV. Both nggolèk and nggolèt mean to search. The former corresponds to the Jogja-Solo dialect and the second corresponds to the Banyumas dialect YNM.

57. The Beringin [Banyan] tree is considered sacred in Indonesia. It is the symbol of the third pillar of the Pancasila national ideology and the double banyan is a symbol of the south square of Yogyakarta YNM.

58. SD stands for sekolah dasar [elementary school], SMP stands for Sekolah Menengah Pertama [middle high school] MEV.

59. Karna was appointed as general by Duryodana.IK.

60. Being a displaced child, thrown away as a baby, Karna refers to Nature as his family IK.

61. The Aji Pangliwungan is a spell that allows people to disappear YNM.

The honorifics in the original languages were retained in the subtitles. In Javanese and Indonesian, speakers address their interlocutors with over 40 different honorifics which denote differences in their relative status and level of intimacy.

ID = Indonesian

JW = Javanese

Adik. ID. Younger brother/sister. It is used for addressing younger people, not necessarily one's relatives.

Adinda. ID. Younger sister. More intimate than adik.

Babé. ID/Betawi. Familiar form of father, commonly used in Jakarta.

. ID/Betawi. Short form of Babé, father. Jakartan slang. 

Bang. ID. Older brother, short form of abang. If used with non-relatives, it is has the connotation of a slang, and is somewhat equivalent to “man” in English.

Bĕndara. JW. Master.

Bibi. JW/ID. Aunt. A way of addressing/referring to older women. 

Bos. ID/JW. An adaptation of the English "boss". Used either to refer to one's superior or to a friend in a joking context, for example, when a person orders others around without realizing he/she is doing so. 

Bu. ID/JW. Short form of ibu, mother.

Bung. ID. Similar to bang, but slightly less formal.  It might mean "comrade". The political leaders of the independence war are often referred to with this term, for example Sukarno is often referred to as

Bung Karno. 

Dara. JW. Short form of bĕndara, master. 

Dèn. JW. Sir, master, used to address royalty. Short form of radèn.

Dhé. JW. Short form of pakdhé, uncle.

Dhik. JW. Short form of adhik. Younger brother/sister. It is used for addressing younger people, not necessarily one's relatives.

Éyang. JW. Grandfather.

Dimas. JW. Younger brother.

Gusti. JW. Lord. Used to address superiors and Gods.

Ibu. JW/ID. Mother. Used generically to address women who are older than the speaker.

Kakang. JW. Older brother.

Kakang mbok. JW. Older sister.

Kanda. ID. Older brother. Formal.

Kang. JW. Older brother. Informal.

Kangmas. JW. Older brother.

Kaki. JW. Uncle

Kang. JW. Older brother, used generically for men older than the speaker. It is a shortened version of kangmas).

Kakak. JW/ID. Older brother/sister, used generically for people who are older than the speaker.

. JW. Son, short version of tholé.

Lik. JW. Often used between friends as a slang term of address. Uncle, "little father." Short form of {paklik}.

Ma. JW. Same as  pak, short form of rama.

Mbak. JW/ID. Older sister. Used generically for women who are slightly older than the speaker.

Mamang. ID. Uncle.

Mang. ID. Uncle, short form of mamang.

Mas. ID. Older brother, used generically for men who are older than the speaker. Although it is also a shortened version of the Javanese kangmas people prefer to use mas in Indonesian and kang in Javanese.

Mas bro. ID. Slang used among male friends. In a way, it is a reduplication.

Mbah. JW/ID Grandfather, grandmother. It is used generically to address people who are much older than the speaker. Short form of simbah.

Mbok. JW. Mother, short form of simbok. Used generically for women who are older than the speaker.

Mbokdhé. JW. Aunt. Literally, "big mother".

Mbul. JW. Informal term of address between close male friends.

Ndara. JW. Master. 

Nduk. JW. Daughter, short form of gĕndhuk.

Nggèr. JW. Son, short form of anggèr Used generically for people who are younger than the speaker, with whom the speaker is on intimate terms.

Nimas. JW. Younger sister. 

Nok. JW. West Javanese term for daughter, short form of dhénok.

Nona. ID. Miss, unmarried woman.

Paduka. ID. Your Excellency. 

Pak. JW/ID. Father, used generically for men who are older than the speaker.

Pakdhé. JW. Uncle. Used to refer to a man who is older than one's father. 

Paman. ID. Uncle. Used to refer to a man who is older than one's father. 

Pangéran. JW/ID. Prince.

Prabu. JW. King.

Radén. JW. Master, used for royalty.

Rama. JW. Father. It can also be used to designate catholic priests when one is speaking in Indonesian. 

Simbah. JW/ID Grandfather, grandmother. It is used generically to address people who are much older than the speaker. 

Sinuwun. JW. Very formal way to address a man, reserved for sultans, kings and Gods.

Siwa. JW. Term for addressing older people. 

Siwak. JW. Same as Siwa. Term for addressing older people. 

Tholé. JW. Son

Tuan. ID. In colonial contexts, this is the way foreigners are addressed but it can also mean sir.

Wa Nĕrpati. JW. Uncle king, equivalent to the Indonesian paman raja.

Wa. JW. For addressing older people, short form of siwa.

Yayi. JW.  Younger brother/sister.

Yunda. JW. Older sister.

See the Translation conventions.



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